What is the historical Reformed View on the salvation of infants and other individuals that are unable mentally to make a sound profession of faith, and what is the OPC view on the same?
Your question concerning the Reformed view on the salvation of infants and other persons unable to make a sound profession of faith is profoundly important. Virtually all of the great Reformed theologians have considered this question and while they have differed in some respects, from each other, they have been of one mind on something of great importance. Let me deal with the latter first, and then with the former.
It is the Reformed faith alone, among the various theological systems, that is consistent. It is consistent in saying that all people, because of the fall of the human race in Adam its head, are inherently depraved by nature and therefore unable to do anything to save themselves. We tend to think of infants as helpless, while we - as adults - are not helpless. But the truth is that in the spiritual realm, having to do with our relationship with the true God, we are just as helpless as infants (or mentally handicapped adults). It is for this reason that the Reformed faith says salvation - in every part and in every respect - is of God. He regenerates us so that we are enabled to respond to the gospel by way of repentance and faith (read Ephesians chapter 2, where it says "we were dead" until God "quickened" us. Quickened means to make alive). So, while it is true that God calls us to respond to the free offer of salvation in the gospel, it is also God - and God alone, God without any assistance from us - who "opens the eyes of our understanding" (Ephesians 1:18) so that we can "see" and "enter" the Kingdom (John 3:3 & 5).
In other systems of theology or doctrine the source of conversion is commonly divided between God and man. In such systems it is even common to think that man - by his own natural and unaided ability - makes the first move. It is said that by his own free will he must first decide to repent and believe, and then - and only then - and on that basis he will be saved. The trouble here is one that your own question suggests as a big problem. If salvation is partly a result of our own initiative then what hope is there for those who do not have the ability to take the initiative. This is a huge problem for other types of theology. But it is no problem at all for Reformed theology. Why? Because there is no difference at all with respect to ability to initiate anything whatsoever pertaining to salvation. And since it is God alone who chooses whomsoever he will to be saved (Romans 9:10-19), and since their salvation has its beginning in his act of regenerating them (John 3:1-8), there is no reason whatever to think that infants or other handicapped people are shut out of God's sovereign salvation. That is why our Confession of Faith [10:3] says "Elect infants, dying in infancy, are regenerated, and saved by Christ, through the Spirit, who worketh when, and where, and how he pleaseth: so also are all other elect persons who are uncapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the word."
On this we are all agreed. The difference comes in the area of speculation: how many of those who are infants, dying in infancy, or otherwise incapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the word will God save? It is the conviction of the writer of these paragraphs that we simply do not know. Some theologians of high reputation and solid orthodoxy have held that God will probably save all such persons. This may be true. But I have never tried to make this a part of my authoritative teaching for the simple reason that I cannot prove it to be so from the Bible. However, I am happy to say teach that it is on the basis of Reformed doctrine alone that we have any solid ground or basis to even hope for such. And there is the irony: Calvinism, or the Reformed Faith, is often characterized as being harsh or narrow. Yet in the final analysis it is this doctrine only that gives reason to hope for those who are helpless.
Thank you for this weighty question. And may he bless this attempt to give a simple biblical answer.
"Questions and Answers" is a weekly feature of the OPC website. The answers come from individual ministers in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church expressing their own convictions and do not necessarily represent an "official" position of the Church, especially in areas where the Standards of the Church (the Scriptures and the Westminster Confession of Faith and Catechisms) are silent.
The questions come from individuals like yourself. If you have questions about biblical and theological matters, you are invited to send them by e-mail by using the "Pose a Question" link on the OPC home page or by clicking here.
At least one new question is posted each week, so there should always be something new here for you to read. (For those people who would like to look at previous questions and answers, they will continue to be available as well.)
The purpose of the OPC website's "Questions and Answers" is to respond to biblical and theological questions. Matters of church discipline, disputes, or debates go beyond the scope of our work. We recommend that you present your concerns in these areas to the appropriate judicatory. In most cases this will be to a local pastor, elder, or session. We do not want the website to replace personal involvement in, or commitment to, the local, visible church.
While we will respond to every serious questioner, we are not bound to give a substantive answer to every question, should we deem the question to be beyond the scope of our purpose or our own ability to answer.
You will receive an answer by e-mail. Please be patient as many of our respondents are busy pastors. The response to your question may take up to two (2) weeks. Some of the questions submitted will be chosen to be posted here, along with the corresponding answers.
Note that the "Questions and Answers" posted on the site have been editedall personal references are removed, Scripture references or from some source may be added, and sometimes portions are expandedto make the questions and answers more useful to a larger audience.