You began your inquiry with a clear statement of the ultimate issue. "If Christianity is the only true 'religion' then all other religions are false…" This, in turn, leads you to ask a question that many would rather avoid: "is Judaism a false faith exercising false worship of a false god, and, bottom line, a worship of 'demons'?" With reliance on the help of the true God—Father, Son and Holy Spirit—I will try to so answer.
There is only one true God, "for"—as the Apostle Paul put it—"although there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth—as indeed there are many 'gods' and many 'lords—yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist." The critical question therefore is to correctly identify this one true God in sharp contrast with all of the false gods. And it is the foundation belief of biblical Christianity that the one and only true God has revealed himself to us as a trinity—one God who exists in three persons; the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.
It's important to realize that while God spoke of himself with plurality terminology (think of Genesis 1:26 where he says "let us make man in our image, after our likeness") the full disclosure of his triune nature only came with the New Testament revelation. I think that is one reason why Jesus said blasphemy against himself was forgiveable. It was no easy thing to adjust to this fuller revelation. Yet the record shows, beyond question, that Jesus himself is Jehovah. He created food to feed 5,000. He commanded the wind and the waves to obey him, and they did obey him. He called dead Lazarus back to life. He was crucified, dead and buried, but then rose from the dead on the third day as he promised, and visibly ascended into heaven. And he also claimed that he alone is "the way, the truth, and the life" and that "no one can come to the Father except by him" (John 14:6). The Bible says "he came to his own and his own received him not" (John 1:11). By "his own" John meant the Jews who were living while he was on earth. But Paul wrote—several years after that—that there was still a veil over the hearts of most Jews and that seems to continue to this day. It is only when "the veil is removed" (2 Cor. 3:16) that they are able to recognize the truth about Jesus. And the truth is that (as Paul said) "there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we [and they] must be saved" (Acts 4:12).
There is, therefore, only one possible answer to your question: so long as Judaism rejects the claims of Jesus Christ (the real Jewish Messiah) it is indeed a false religion. This does not mean that there is no truth in it whatsoever. But it does mean that there is no saving message in it without recognition of Jesus as the Messiah. Yet even while we must say this, it is important to do so with a deep sense of humble awareness of what the apostle Paul says in Romans 11:
"But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, although a wild olive shoot, were grafted in among the others and now share in the nourishing root of the olive tree, do not be arrogant toward the branches. If you are, remember it is not you who support the root, but the root that supports you. Then you will say, 'Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.' That is true. They were broken off because of their unbelief, but you stand fast through faith. So do not become proud, but stand in awe. For if God did not spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. Note then the kindness and the severity of God: severity toward those who have fallen, but God's kindness to you, provided you continue in his kindness. Otherwise you too will be cut off. And even they, if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God has the power to graft them in again.For if you were cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree, how much morewill these, the natural branches, be grafted back into their own olive tree."
During the second World War these words of the Apostle Paul were taken seriously by many Dutch people during the Nazi occupation of their country. Even though the Jews living among them did not believe in Jesus, those Dutch Christians knew that their own hope of eternal life depended on the saving work of a Jew named Jesus. They understood that it was to the Jews alone among all the peoples on earth that God had chosen to bring forth the Messiah who takes away the sin not only of all Jews who believe, but also of all Gentile believers as well. And so—Yes—those who refuse to worship Jesus as God are, in effect (even though they are not aware of it) serving demons.
Thank you for asking this momentous question.
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